Know The Law

Dog Breeding in India- Laws & Regulation

Dog Breeding in India

Ankita Lode, a final-year student of Yeshwant Law College, Wardha has written this Article. It explains the laws and regulations related to dog breeding in India.


Table of Contents

Introduction

Dog breeding laws in India are a topic of increasing importance as the popularity of dog ownership continues to grow in the country. The demand for purebred dogs has led to an increase in breeding operations, both professional and amateur, which can sometimes result in the neglect and mistreatment of dogs. In response to this, the Indian government has implemented laws and regulations to ensure the welfare of dogs and prevent the spread of disease.

The laws governing dog breeding in India vary depending on the state, with some states having more comprehensive regulations than others. In general, these laws aim to regulate dog breeding operations, including standards for breeding facilities and conditions for the care and treatment of dogs.

One of the key issues in dog breeding in India is the prevalence of illegal and unregulated breeding operations, which often operate without regard for the welfare of the dogs or the laws governing their operation. This can result in the mistreatment of dogs, the spread of disease, and the proliferation of genetic disorders.

The Indian government has taken steps to address these issues through the implementation of laws and regulations aimed at improving the welfare of dogs and regulating breeding operations. However, there is still a need for greater awareness of these laws and their enforcement, as well as continued efforts to improve the welfare of dogs across the country.

Overall, the topic of dog breeding laws in India is an important one, with implications for both the welfare of dogs and the broader community. By understanding and enforcing these laws, we can work to ensure that dogs in India would get better treatment with the care and respect they deserve.

Overview of dog breeding laws in India

Dog breeding is a common practice in India, but it is also an area where animal welfare concerns are prevalent. In recent years, there has been a growing focus on regulating dog breeding to prevent animal cruelty and promote responsible ownership. In India, there are several laws and regulations that govern dog breeding, including the Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules, 2001, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, AWBI guidelines on pet dogs and street dogs, and other relevant laws.

1) Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules, 2001

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 enacted the Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules, 2001 to regulate the population of stray dogs in India. These rules mandate that all local authorities, animal welfare organizations, and individuals involved in dog breeding and care must follow certain guidelines. Some of the key provisions of the Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules, 2001 include:

  1. Registration of breeders and organizations involved in dog breeding and care.
  2. Sterilization of all street dogs to control their population.
  3. Vaccination of dogs against rabies.
  4. Prevention of the sale of unsterilized dogs.
  5. Provision of suitable housing and care for dogs.

2) Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, of 1960 is a central legislation that seeks to prevent cruelty to animals. The Act prohibits the cruel treatment of animals and establishes penalties for offenders. The Act also sets out certain provisions related to the breeding and care of animals, including dogs. Some of the key provisions of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 include:

  1. Prohibition of cruel treatment of animals.
  2. Requirement for appropriate care and treatment of animals.
  3. Prohibition of animal fighting and cruelty.
  4. Prohibition of the sale of animals that are unfit for consumption.
  5. Provision for penalties and punishment for offenders.

3) AWBI guidelines on pet dogs and street dogs

The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) [1]has issued guidelines on the care and management of pet dogs and street dogs. These guidelines provide guidance on the responsible breeding and ownership of dogs, as well as the management of street dogs. Some of the key provisions of the AWBI guidelines on pet dogs and street dogs include:

  1. Promotion of responsible dog ownership.
  2. Encouragement of sterilization and vaccination of dogs.
  3. Provision of appropriate housing and care for dogs.
  4. Management of street dog populations through sterilization and vaccination.
  5. Prevention of the sale of unsterilized dogs.

4) Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Dog Breeding and Marketing) Rules, 2017:

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Dog Breeding and Marketing) Rules, [2]2017 were notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India. The rules aim to regulate dog breeding and marketing activities to prevent cruelty to dogs. Some of the key provisions of the rules include:

  1. Registration: Any person or organization involved in dog breeding and marketing must register themselves with the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI).
  2. Conditions for breeding: The rules set certain conditions for dog breeding, such as the minimum age for breeding, the maximum number of litters that a female dog can have, and the minimum space and facilities required for keeping dogs.
  3. Sale and purchase: The rules require sellers to maintain records of all dogs sold and provide information about the dog’s health, vaccination, and pedigree. Buyers need to sign an undertaking stating that they will take care of the dog and not engage in any act of cruelty.
  4. Online sales: The rules prohibit the online sale of dogs, and require sellers to physically verify the identity and address of the buyer before selling a dog.
  5. Breeding and selling prohibited: The rules prohibit the breeding and sale of dogs that are unfit for breeding, suffering from genetic disorders or diseases, or surgically mutilated.
  6. Enforcement: The rules provide penalties for violation of the rules, and empower the AWBI and other authorities to inspect and seize dogs in case of non-compliance.

5) Other relevant laws and regulations:

In addition to the Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules, 2001, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, and the AWBI guidelines on pet dogs and street dogs, there are several other laws and regulations that govern dog breeding and care in India[3]. These include:

  1. The Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984.
  2. The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
  3. The Forest Conservation Act, 1980.
  4. The Municipal Corporation Acts of various states.

Elaborate AWBI guidelines on pet dogs and street dogs:

The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) [4] has released guidelines for the care and management of pet dogs and street dogs. These guidelines provide important provisions and sections for ensuring the welfare and safety of dogs.

1) Identification and Registration of Dogs:

It is important to have the identification and registration of dogs to ensure their safety and security. The guidelines recommend the use of microchips or collar tags for the identification and registration of pet dogs. It is also important to have a central registry of dogs to keep track of their ownership and vaccination records.

2) Vaccination and Medical Care:

Owners should vaccinate their pet dogs against common diseases like rabies, parvovirus, distemper, etc. The guidelines recommend regular veterinary check-ups and medical care for pets. It is also important to have a first-aid kit for pets and to know how to provide basic medical care in case of an emergency.

3) Housing and Environment:

Pet dogs should have a safe and comfortable living environment[5]. The guidelines recommend providing adequate space, shelter, bedding, and toys for dogs. It is important to ensure that the living area is clean, well-ventilated, and free from hazards that could harm the dog.

4) Nutrition and Feeding:

Dogs require a balanced and nutritious diet to maintain their health and well-being. The guidelines recommend feeding dogs high-quality dog food and avoiding human food, which can be harmful to dogs. It is important to provide fresh water and feed dogs at regular intervals.

5) Training and Socialization:

Dogs should be trained and socialized to ensure good behaviour and prevent aggression. The guidelines recommend positive reinforcement training methods and socializing dogs with people and other animals. It is also important to teach dogs basic commands and to provide mental stimulation through play and exercise.

6) Sterilization and Population Control:

Street dogs should be sterilized to control their population and prevent the spread of diseases. The guidelines recommend the use of humane methods for sterilization and population control, such as trap-neuter-release programs. It is also important to educate the public about responsible pet ownership and the importance of sterilization.

7) Follow Animal Welfare Laws and Regulations:

The guidelines [6]highlight the importance of following animal welfare laws and regulations to ensure the safety and well-being of dogs. It is important to prevent cruelty and abuse towards dogs and to report any incidents of animal cruelty to the authorities.

Licensing and Registration Requirements for Dog Breeders in India

The government of India has made it mandatory for all dog breeders to obtain a license before commencing their business. The licensing and registration requirements for dog breeders are laid out in the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Dog Breeding and Marketing) Rules, 2017[7]. The authorities enacted these rules to regulate the breeding and sale of dogs, and to ensure the welfare of these animals.

The rules state that any person or establishment involved in the breeding or sale of dogs must obtain a license from the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) [8]or the State Animal Welfare Board (SAWB). The AWBI is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, while the SAWB is a state-level board that works under the AWBI. The rules also state that all dog breeders must register themselves with the SAWB or the AWBI, depending on the state in which they are located.

The process for obtaining a license:

The process for obtaining a license for dog breeding in India is as follows:

Step 1: Application for license

The first step is to apply for a license by submitting an application form to the AWBI or the SAWB. The application form can be downloaded from the official website of the AWBI or the SAWB. The application must contain all the necessary details of the breeder, including their name, address, and contact details.

Step 2: Inspection

Once the application is submitted, the AWBI or the SAWB will conduct an inspection of the breeder’s premises. This inspection is carried out to ensure that the breeder is complying with all the rules and regulations regarding the welfare of the dogs. During the inspection, the authorities will check the living conditions of the dogs, their health, and the facilities provided for their care.

Step 3: Grant of license

If the authorities are satisfied with the breeder’s compliance with the rules and regulations, they will grant the breeder a license. The license is valid for a period of one year, after which it must be renewed.

Step 4: Fees Involved

The fees involved in obtaining a license for dog breeding in India vary depending on the state in which the breeder is located. In most states, the fee [9]for obtaining a license ranges from Rs. 5000 to Rs. 10,000. In addition to the license fee, the breeder is also required to pay an annual fee for the renewal of the license. The annual fee is usually a fraction of the initial license fee.

Standards of Care for Dog Breeding in India

As humans, we are responsible for providing the basic needs of our canine companions. These include proper housing, nutrition, healthcare, and socialization.

1) Proper Housing:

The first basic need that we should provide for our dogs is proper housing. This is particularly important for those dogs who are kept outside. There are a few things to consider when providing housing [10]for your dog:

  • Size:

Dogs need enough space to move around freely. The size of the house or kennel should be appropriate for the size of the dog. A small dog may be comfortable in a small kennel, while a large dog will need a larger kennel[11].

  • Protection:

The kennel should be able to protect the dog from the elements. This means that it should be waterproof and provide shade from the sun. It should also be well-ventilated to ensure that the dog has plenty of fresh air.

  • Comfort:

The kennel should be comfortable for the dog to sleep in. This means that it should have a soft bed and clean bedding. It should also be kept clean and free from any debris that could cause harm to the dog.

  • Security:

The kennel should be secure so that the dog cannot escape. This means that the kennel should have a secure door or gate that is kept locked at all times.

Providing proper housing for your dog is important for their physical and mental health. It ensures that they have a safe and comfortable place to call home.

2) Nutrition:

The second basic need that we should provide for our dogs is proper nutrition. A well-balanced diet is essential for a dog’s overall health and well-being [12]. There are a few things to consider when providing nutrition[13] for your dog:

  1. Quality: The quality of the food that you feed your dog is important. Look for dog food that contains high-quality ingredients, including meat, vegetables, and grains. Avoid dog food that contains fillers, such as corn or soy.
  2. Quantity: The quantity of food that you feed your dog should be appropriate for their size and age. Feeding your dog too much can lead to obesity, while feeding them too little can lead to malnourishment.
  3. Frequency: The frequency of feeding your dog depends on their age and activity level. Puppies may need to be fed more frequently than adult dogs. Active dogs may need to be fed more often than sedentary dogs.
  4. Hydration: Access to fresh water is essential for your dog’s health. Make sure that your dog has access to clean water at all times.

Providing proper nutrition for your dog is important for their physical health and well-being. A well-balanced diet can help prevent a number of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

3) Healthcare:

The third basic need that we should provide for our dogs is proper healthcare. Regular visits to the vet are essential for keeping your dog healthy. There are a few things to consider when providing healthcare for your dog:

  1. Vaccinations: Vaccinations[14] are important for protecting your dog from a number of diseases. Make sure that your dog is up-to-date on all of their vaccinations.
  2. Parasite prevention: Fleas, ticks, and other parasites [15]can cause a number of health problems for your dog. Make sure that your dog is protected from parasites with regular preventative treatments.
  3. Regular check-ups: Regular check-ups with your vet can help catch health problems before they become serious. Make sure that your dog sees the vet at least once a year.
  4. Dental care: Dental care is important for your dog’s overall health. Brush your dog’s teeth regularly and provide them with dental chews and toys to help keep their teeth clean.
  5. Emergency care: Accidents and illnesses can happen at any time. Make sure that you have an emergency plan in place for your dog, including access to emergency veterinary care.
  6. Providing proper healthcare for your dog is important for their overall health and well-being. Regular veterinary care can help prevent a number of health problems and catch any issues early, allowing for prompt treatment.
4) Socialization:

The fourth basic need that we should provide for our dogs is proper socialization. Dogs are social animals and need interaction with other dogs and humans to thrive[16]. There are a few things to consider when providing socialization for your dog:

  1. Exposure: Introduce your dog to a variety of people, animals, and environments from a young age. This can help prevent fear and anxiety in new situations.
  2. Training: Proper training can help your dog learn how to behave in social situations. Basic obedience training can help prevent behaviour problems and make socialization easier.
  3. Playtime: Playtime with other dogs can be a great way for your dog to socialize. Make sure that playtime is supervised and that all dogs are getting along.
  4. Activities: Participating in activities with your dog, such as obedience classes or agility training, can help improve their socialization skills.

Providing proper socialization for your dog is [17]important for their mental health and well-being. Dogs that are well-socialized are less likely to develop behavior problems, such as aggression or anxiety.

Dog Breeding Restrictions in India:

Breeding restrictions are a set of regulations that are put in place to ensure the welfare and safety of animals being bred. India has laws and regulations that aim to regulate the breeding practices of dogs in the country. The breeding restrictions in India, include the prohibition of inbreeding, genetic engineering, and other practices that could result in the breeding of unhealthy or genetically defective dogs.

1) Prohibition of inbreeding

Inbreeding is the mating of closely related individuals, such as siblings or parents and offspring. Inbreeding is often practised in dog breeding to maintain certain desirable traits or to produce a certain look. However, inbreeding can also result in the breeding of unhealthy or genetically defective dogs.

In India, inbreeding is prohibited under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, of 1960[18]. Section 11(1) (m) of the Act states that it is an offence to promote the breeding of animals in a manner that results in the production of offspring that are unfit for work or are likely to suffer from inherited diseases or deformities.

2) Prohibition of genetic engineering

Genetic engineering involves manipulating the genes of an organism to produce desired traits or to eliminate undesirable traits. Genetic engineering can be used in dog breeding to produce dogs with certain desirable traits or to eliminate genetic disorders.

In India, genetic engineering of animals is prohibited under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. Section 11(1) (a) of the Act states that it is an offence to inflict pain, suffering or cruelty on any animal, including through genetic manipulation.

3) Registration of dog breeders

In India, dog breeders are required to register with the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) [19]before they can breed dogs. The AWBI is a statutory body that is responsible for promoting animal welfare in the country.

To register with the AWBI, breeders must comply with certain requirements, such as providing adequate living conditions for their dogs, ensuring that their dogs receive proper veterinary care, and not engaging in any breeding practices that are likely to result in the production of unhealthy or genetically defective dogs.

4) Mandatory health checks for breeding dogs

In India, breeders must subject their breeding dogs to mandatory health checks before using them for breeding. These health checks aim to identify any underlying health conditions or genetic disorders that could be passed on to their offspring.

The health checks may include a physical examination, blood tests, X-rays, and genetic testing. Dogs that are found to have health issues or genetic disorders are not allowed to be used for breeding.

5) Prohibition of dog fighting

Dog fighting is a cruel and illegal blood sport that involves pitting two dogs against each other in a fight to the death. Dog fighting is prohibited in India under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.

Section 11(1)(n) of the Act states that it is an offense to train or encourage any animal to fight or bait any animal, including dogs. Breeders who engage in dog fighting or who breed dogs for the purpose of fighting can be prosecuted under the Act.

6) Limitations on the number of litter

In India, dog breeders are not allowed to breed their dogs excessively. The number of litters that a breeder can produce is limited to prevent overbreeding and the production of unhealthy or genetically defective dogs.

The AWBI has set guidelines for the number of litters that can be produced by a breeder. These guidelines vary depending on the breed of dog and the health of the breeding dogs.

7) Prohibition of sale of puppies under eight weeks of age

In India, it is illegal to sell puppies under the age of eight weeks. Puppies under eight weeks of age are still nursing and are not yet fully weaned, so separating them from their mother and littermates can be detrimental to their health and development.

This prohibition is aimed at protecting the welfare of puppies and ensuring that they are not subjected to unnecessary stress or suffering. Breeders who sell puppies under eight weeks of age can be fined or imprisoned under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960[20].

8) Prohibition of ear cropping and tail docking

In India, ear cropping and tail docking are prohibited under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. Section 11(1) (m) of the Act states that it is an offense to promote the breeding of animals in a manner that results in the production of offspring that are likely to suffer from inherited diseases or deformities.

Ear cropping and tail docking can cause pain, discomfort, and distress to dogs and can also lead to complications, such as infections and nerve damage.

Ear cropping and tail docking are surgical procedures that involve the removal of part of a dog’s ear or tail for cosmetic purposes. People perform these procedures on certain breeds of dogs, such as Boxers, Doberman Pinschers, and Great Danes, to enhance their appearance.

9) Promotion of responsible dog ownership

In addition to regulating breeding practices, India also promotes responsible dog ownership. This includes educating the public on the importance of providing adequate care and attention to their dogs, such as providing them with proper nutrition, exercise, and medical care.

The government and animal welfare organizations in India [21]also promote the adoption of dogs from animal shelters and rescue organizations, rather than buying dogs from breeders. This helps to reduce the number of homeless and abandoned dogs in the country and provides loving homes for dogs in need Dogs are one of the most popular pets in India, and the sale and purchase of dogs is a common practice. However, there are several regulations in place to ensure the welfare of the animals and prevent any kind of mistreatment or abuse.

Regulations regarding the sale and purchase of dogs in India

There are several regulations in place to ensure the welfare of animals and prevent any kind of mistreatment and abuse. Some of them are listed below:

1) Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 is the primary legislation in India that governs the welfare of animals. This act aims to prevent the unnecessary pain and suffering of animals and ensure their welfare. According to this act, any person who keeps or sells animals must ensure that the animal is provided with adequate food, water, shelter, and medical care.

2) The Animal Birth Control (Dog) Rules, 2001

The Animal Birth Control (Dog) Rules, 2001[22], provide guidelines for the management of street dogs and the prevention of their proliferation. According to these rules, no person can remove or relocate any street dog from its territory, except in the case of an emergency or a rabies outbreak. The rules also state that no person can kill any street dog, and all street dogs should be sterilized to prevent their proliferation.

3) The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Dog Breeding and Marketing) Rules, 2017

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Dog Breeding and Marketing) Rules, 2017[23], provide guidelines for the breeding and marketing of dogs in India. According to these rules, any person who breeds or sells dogs must obtain a registration certificate from the Animal Welfare Board of India. The registration certificate is valid for five years and must be renewed thereafter.

The Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984

The Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984[24], regulates the veterinary profession in India. According to this act, any person who practices veterinary medicine must be registered with the Veterinary Council of India. The council maintains a register of all registered veterinarians in India.

4) The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Pet Shop) Rules, 2018

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Pet Shop) Rules, 2018[25], provide guidelines for the operation of pet shops in India. According to these rules, any person who operates a pet shop must obtain a registration certificate from the Animal Welfare Board of India. The registration certificate is valid for five years and must be renewed thereafter. The rules also state that pet shops must maintain records of all animals bought and sold, and ensure that the animals are provided with adequate food, water, shelter, and medical care.

Documentation required for the sale and purchase of dogs

According to the regulations mentioned above, the sale and purchase of dogs in India require the following documentation:

  • Registration certificate

Any person who breeds or sells dogs must obtain a registration certificate from the Animal Welfare Board of India.

  • Health certificate

A health certificate is a document that certifies that the dog is healthy and free from any infectious diseases. This certificate is usually issued by a registered veterinarian.

  • Ownership certificate

An ownership certificate is a document that certifies that the dog belongs to a particular person. This certificate is usually issued by the breeder or seller of the dog.

  • Prohibition of selling dogs to minors

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Pet Shop) Rules, 2018 prohibit pet shops from selling animals to minors. This rule aims to prevent the mistreatment or abuse of animals by children who may not be capable of providing them with adequate care and attention.

Penalties for non-compliance:

Non-compliance with the regulations mentioned above can lead to penalties and legal action. The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960[26], provides for a fine and/or imprisonment for any person who is found guilty of cruelty to animals. The Animal Welfare Board of India can also revoke the registration certificate of any person who violates the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Dog Breeding and Marketing) Rules, 2017, or the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Pet Shop) Rules, 2018. To ensure compliance with these laws, various penalties are imposed on breeders who violate the regulations. These penalties include fines, imprisonment, and revocation of their license. In this essay, we will discuss the penalties for non-compliance with dog breeding laws in India in detail.

1) Fines

One of the most common penalties for non-compliance with dog breeding laws in India is fine. The amount of the fine varies depending on the severity of the offence. For minor violations, the fine may be relatively low, while for more serious offences, the fine can be quite substantial. The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) [27]is responsible for determining the fines for various offenses.

For example, breeders who violate the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, by engaging in the sale or purchase of animals for slaughter can face a fine of up to Rs. 50,000 or imprisonment for up to three years, or both. Similarly, breeders who fail to obtain a license for breeding dogs can be fined up to Rs. 5,000 under the Breeding and Sale of Dogs (Regulation) Rules, 2017.

2) Imprisonment:

In addition to fines, breeders who violate dog breeding laws in India can also face imprisonment. Again, the severity and duration of the imprisonment depend on the offense committed. For instance, breeders who engage in dog fighting, an illegal and cruel practice, can face imprisonment for up to three years under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.

Similarly, breeders who violate the Breeding and Sale of Dogs (Regulation) Rules, 2017[28], can face imprisonment for up to three months for minor offenses and up to two years for more serious offenses. This includes offenses such as keeping dogs in unhygienic or overcrowded conditions, failing to provide proper medical care, and selling puppies before they are eight weeks old.

3) Revocation of license:

Breeders who violate dog breeding laws in India can also have their licenses revoked. This means that they will no longer be allowed to breed dogs or sell puppies legally. The Breeding and Sale of Dogs (Regulation) Rules, 2017, provide for the revocation of a breeder’s license for various offenses, including:

  • a. Selling puppies before they are eight weeks old
  • b. Breeding dogs without a license
  • c. Keeping dogs in unhygienic or overcrowded conditions
  • d. Failing to provide proper medical care to dogs

        The revocation of a breeder’s license can have serious consequences for their livelihood. They may no longer be able to sell puppies or breed dogs legally, which could result in a loss of income.

4) Seizure of dogs:

Another penalty for non-compliance with dog breeding laws in India is the seizure of dogs. This means that the authorities can take the dogs away from the breeder and place them in a more suitable environment. The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, provides for the seizure of animals getting cruel treatment or inhumane conditions to live.

Under the Breeding and Sale of Dogs (Regulation) Rules, 2017, the authorities can also seize dogs if the breeder fails to obtain a license or violates the conditions of their license. In such cases, the authorities may transfer the dogs to a recognized animal welfare organization for their care and rehabilitation.

Criticisms and challenges facing the implementation of dog breeding laws in India.

The implementation of dog breeding laws in India has faced several criticisms and challenges, including[29]:

Lack of Enforcement:

The laws regulating dog breeding in India don’t often get proper enforcement due to a lack of resources, manpower, and political will. As a result, many breeders continue to operate outside the law, engaging in illegal and unethical practices such as puppy mills and inbreeding.

Corruption:

Corruption is a major challenge in enforcing dog breeding laws in India[30]. Some breeders may bribe officials to overlook violations of regulations or obtain licenses without meeting the necessary criteria. This undermines the integrity of the regulatory system and puts the welfare of dogs at risk.

Resistance from Breeders:

Some breeders may resist compliance with regulations due to financial interests, lack of awareness, or cultural beliefs[31]. For example, some breeders may not want to implement certain practices such as genetic testing or proper housing because they view it as unnecessary or too expensive.

Lack of Coordination:

There is often a lack of coordination between different agencies responsible for enforcing dog breeding laws in India. This can lead to confusion, delays, and inconsistencies in implementation, making it difficult to monitor and enforce compliance.

Inadequate Penalties:

The penalties for violating dog breeding laws in India may not be severe enough to act as a deterrent[32]. In some cases, the fines are low, and there may be no provision for confiscating animals or revoking licenses. This means that some breeders may continue to engage in illegal practices with little consequence.

To overcome these challenges, it is important to increase awareness about dog breeding laws and their importance in ensuring the welfare of animals[33]. It is also essential to provide adequate resources and training for enforcement agencies to enable them to carry out their duties effectively. Additionally, penalties for violating the regulations should be increased to act as a deterrent to non-compliance. Finally, there should be greater coordination and cooperation between different agencies responsible for implementing dog breeding laws to ensure consistency and efficacy in enforcement.

Conclusion

In India, the breeding and sale of dogs are regulated under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, and the Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules, 2001. These laws prohibit the breeding and sale of dogs without a valid license and mandate that all breeders must register themselves with the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI).

The AWBI is responsible for enforcing regulations related to dog breeding, and breeders must comply with certain standards, including providing adequate housing, nutrition, and medical care for their dogs. The laws also require breeders to maintain accurate records of their breeding activities and to microchip their dogs.

In addition, the government of India has imposed a ban on the import of dogs for commercial breeding, with the exception of breeds that are not commonly available in the country.

Overall, the laws regarding dog breeding in India aim to prevent cruelty to animals and promote responsible breeding practices. However, there have been criticisms that the laws are not always effectively enforced. And, there is a need for greater awareness and education about responsible pet ownership and breeding practices in the country.


Also Read: Pet Owner’s Liability in dog bite cases

References /Websites:


BIBLIOGRAPHY

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[2] Government of India. (2017). Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Dog Breeding and Marketing) Rules, 2017. Retrieved from https://dahd.nic.in/sites/default/files/DOG%20BREEDING%20AND%20MARKETING%20RULES%202017_0.pdf

[3] DogSpot.in. (2021). Indian laws and regulations related to dog breeding. Retrieved from https://www.dogspot.in/dog-breding-laws-india/

[4] Animal Welfare Board of India. (2015). Guidelines for the care and management of pet dogs and street dogs. Retrieved from https://awbi.org/awbi-pdf/pet-dogs-street-dogs-guidelines.pdf

[5] Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. (n.d.). Guidelines for care and management of pet dogs and street dogs. Retrieved from https://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Pet-Dogs-Street-Dogs-Guidelines.pdf

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[8] “Animal Welfare Board of India”, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India, available at https://awbi.org.in/

[9]  “Dog breeding license fee varies from Rs. 5000 to Rs. 10,000 in India”, DogsWorld, 17 June 2020, available at https://www.dogsworld.in/dog-breedin-license-fee-varies-rs-5000-rs-10000-india/

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[14] American Veterinary Medical Association. (2021). Canine vaccinations. Retrieved from https://www.avma.org/resources/pet-owners/petcare/canine-vaccinations

[15] ASPCA. (n.d.). Dog care: Common health issues. Retrieved from https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/dog-care/common-dog-health-problems

[16] AVMA. (n.d.). Socialization for dogs. Retrieved from https://www.avma.org/resources/pet-owners/petcare/socialization-dogs

[17] PetMD. (n.d.). The importance of socialization for dogs. Retrieved from https://www.petmd.com/dog/training/importance-socialization-dogs

[18] Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. Retrieved from https://indiacode.nic.in/handle/123456789/1397?sam_handle=123456789/1362

[19] Animal Welfare Board of India. Retrieved from https://awbi.in/

[20] Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. Available at: http://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/A1960-59_0.pdf

[21] The Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organizations. Retrieved from http://www.fiapo.org/

[22] The Animal Birth Control (Dog) Rules, 2001. Available at: http://www.cpcb.nic.in/upload/NewItems/NewItem_159_ABCRules.pdf

[23] The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Dog Breeding and Marketing) Rules, 2017. Available at: http://www.awbi.org/awbi-pdf/pet_dog_rules_2017.pdf

[24] The Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984. Available at: http://www.vci-india.in/doc/Acts/IVC_ACT_1984.pdf

[25] The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Pet Shop) Rules, 2018. Available at: http://www.cpcb.nic.in/upload/NewItems/NewItem_222_PetShopRules2018.pdf

[26] The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. Retrieved from https://indiacode.nic.in/bitstream/123456789/1464/1/a1960-59.pdf

[27] The Animal Welfare Board of India. (n.d.). Functions of the AWBI. Retrieved from https://awbi.org.in/Functions-of-AWBI

[28] The Breeding and Sale of Dogs (Regulation) Rules, 2017. Retrieved from https://dahd.nic.in/sites/default/files/Breeding%20and%20Sale%20of%20Dogs%20(Regulation)%20Rules%2C%202017.pdf

[29] “Challenges Faced in Implementation of Animal Welfare Laws in India,” by Kamaldeep Dhillon and Avinash Kaur, Journal of Animal Ethics, vol. 4, no. 1, 2014, pp. 32-41.

[30] “Dog Breeding and Welfare in India,” by Laura J. Bonnett, Animals, vol. 11, no. 6, 2021, pp. 1742.

[31] “Implementation of Dog Breeding and Sale Rules in India: Are We Heading in the Right Direction?” by M. S. Thakur, et al., Journal of Veterinary Public Health, vol. 14, no. 2, 2016, pp. 97-100.

[32] “Animal Welfare Legislation in India: An Overview,” by Aniruddha Majumdar, Journal of Animal Ethics, vol. 4, no. 1, 2014, pp. 7-19.

[33] “Animal Welfare in India: A Legal Perspective,” by Ruchi Khetan, Journal of Animal Ethics, vol. 7, no. 1, 2017, pp. 27-40.

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    • 10 months ago (Edit)

    […] Ankita Lode, a final-year student of Yeshwant Law College, Wardha has written this Article. It explains Schools of law in jurisprudence, provides a Historical Overview of Schools of Law, The Major Schools of Law & Criticisms among other things. […]

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